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Article by Bai, Haiyan and Pan, Wei (2008) in International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 31:1.


If you’re looking for a paper that describes all the resampling techniques in a non-mathematical way, this paper is the answer. It provides a brief description of each individual technique, plus the comparison on the strength, limitation and application aspects of all the techniques. It also provides examples of the application of each technique in the field of education research. All explained in a less-technical language for less-statistical-background readers.


Resampling is “a technique that creates multiple resamples from the original sample and derives statistics from these resamples”. [Note: For alternative definition, you may refer to wikipedia here]. It has two main purposes:

  1. To provide solutions for non-parametric and small-sample problems, where researchers will be able to: (a) quantify uncertainty by calculating standard errors and confidence intervals; and (b) perform significance tests with lessened assumptions;
  2. To gain more valid statistical results where sampling error can be reduced.


I prepare a table to illustrate the brief description of all the techniques below:

Resampling Techniques

Resampling Techniques







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